33. Ukan/Edun 1-1
33.1 Ukan - Ergative case/NORK
- There are two names for the auxiliary verb used for non-conjugated transitive verbs, Ukan and Edun.
- You will see one or the other or both in literature, but they refer to the same set of words.
- Transitive verbs are those that can answer the question “what”, and Ukan/Edun is used, throughout the region,
- as the auxiliary verb for transitive verbs, in a similar manner to how IZAN is used with non-transitive verbs.
- Ukan/Edun can also be used to mean “to have”, and is a synonym with Eduki, which is common in Spain, but seldom used in France.
- Eduki will be covered later
Auxiliary verb Ukan/Edun conjugated
- Ukan/Edun with a single object is du- with the endings -t, -zu, -. -gu, -zue, -te
- (nik dut, zuk duzu, hark du, guk dugu, zuek duzue, haiek dute)
- This is a pattern you will see with other conjugated transitive verbs.
- Verbs used with Ukan/Edun follow the same form as with Izan.
- For the near past, the dictionary form is combined with Ukan/Edun. For example Nik egin dut. I did it.
- Word order in Basque can be very flexible, but normally for transitive verbs it is Subject-Object-Verb (SOV).
- As with intransitive verbs, when adjectives are used, they follow the noun,
- the noun doesn’t change and the grammar suffix is added to the last adjective in the noun phrase.
- Gaur nik poltsa urdina ireki dut. Today I opened the blue purse.
- Subject: Nik, Object: Noun: poltsa Adjective: urdina, Verb: Main Verb: ireki Auxiliary verb: dut.
- As with intrasitive, the near past is an event that happened in the present time from, usually that day
- for example: Guar nik euskaraz hitz egin dut.
- Today I spoke Basque.
- As with intransitive verbs, when used in the negative. Didn’t do something, ez goes with the noun.
- Nik ez dut liburua irakurri. I didn’t read the book.
The NORK case:
- The chart below shows the main parts of the NORK-NOR (ergative -absolutive) case in Basque.
- The NORK (ergative) case is used with the subject of transitive verbs (verbs which have objects)
- while the object of the verb is in the NOR (absolutive) case,
- which is the case used for the subject of intransitive verbs, that was covered earlier.
- Example: Txakurra gaztea da. The dog is young.(txakurra is the intransitive verb subject)
- Mikelek txakurra dauka. Michael has the dog.(txakurra is the transitive verb object, while Mikelek is the subject)
- Single definite
- Plural definite
- Proper names
- As was covered in module 20, Because 1, the Basque word for any is the suffix -rik.
- When using -rik, you just add -rik to the no article form. Ex: diru = money, dirurik. = any money.
- As with English, -rik is normally used with negative sentences. The subject doesn’t have any of the object. Also note -rik makes the object single.
- Note that the following are translated as have/has, but remember they also can be used as auxiliary verbs
- and that is how they will be used in this lesson for the sentences.
- Nik dut: I have (single object)
- Zuk duzu: You have (single object)
- Hark du: He/she/it has (single object)
- Guk dugu: We have (single object)
- Zuek duzue: You (plural) have (single object)
- Haiek dute: They have (single object)
- ireki: opened
- itxi: closed
- jaso: received
- garbitu: cleaned
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