​Basics 3

The NOR/Absolutive case

  • This lesson continues introducing the main parts of the first case in Basque, the NOR/Absolutive case, which is used with the subject of intransitive verbs (verbs without objects) and the object of transitive verbs(verbs with objects), which will be discussed later.

Nor Case, Plural Definite

  • Plural definite

    • Ending: -ak
    • Example: EtxeAK (houses)
  • The plural definite form of Basque nouns is used give Basque nouns the equivalent of an English plural ending (s).

  • Izan sentences use the NOR case, so you would add "-ak" (mutil → mutilak) to plural nouns.

  • Note: If the word ends in an "a" in the Indefinite form, another is not added in the Plural Definite form.

  • Ex: Neska(girl, a girl, the girl): Neskak(girls)

Also, if the indefinite form of the word ends in an "r", for the Plural forms the "r" is normally, but not always, doubled.

  • Ex: Txakur - txakurrak, but paper - paperak (not paperrak).

Plural Pronouns and IZAN (to be)

Plural Pronouns

  • Gura (We)
  • Zuek (You(plural))
  • Haiek (They)

Izan (to be)

Izan declination

  • The forms of Izan are irregular, and need to be memorized.

    • Gu gara: We are
    • Zuek zarete: You (plural) are
    • Haiek dira: They are
  • Izan sentences use the NOR case mentioned above, so you would add "-ak" (mutil → mutilak) for plural definite nouns.

Vocabulary Basics 3

  • gu gara: we are
  • zuek zarete: you(plural) are
  • haiek dira: they are
  • eta: and
  • gizonak: men
  • emakumeak: women
  • mutilak: boys
  • neskak: girls
  • ikasleak: students
  • irakalseak: teachers

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