Eduki 1 (Transitive Verbs)

39. Eduki 1

39.1 Eduki - Ergative case/NORK

  • Note: Basque has two words for “to have”, Eduki and Ukan (which is also used as the auxiliary verb for non-conjugated transitive verbs).
  • Eduki is common in Spain, but seldom used in France.
  • Word order in Basque can be very flexible, but normally for transitive verbs it is Subject-Object-Verb (SOV).
  • As with intransitive verbs, when adjectives are used, they follow the noun,
  • the noun doesn’t change and the grammar suffix is added to the last adjective in the noun phrase.

Transitive verb conjugation

  • In the examples below, note that “to have” with a single object is dauka- with the endings -t, -zu, -. -gu, -zue, -te
  • (nik daukat, zuk daukazu, hark dauka, guk daukagu, zuek daukazue, haiek daukate)
  • while “to have” with a plural object is dauzka- with same endings of -t, -zu, -. -gu, -zue, -te
  • (nik dauzkat, zuk dauzkazu, hark dauzka, guk dauzkagu, zuek dauzkazue, haiek dauzkate).
  • You will see the pattern of da- for third person object, the stem, in this case -uka/ukazka- with the endings, -t, -zu, -. -gu, -zue, -(z)te
  • used with other verbs.
  • For example jakin, to know (da- + -ki/kizki- +endings
  • nik dakit/dakizkit, zuk dakizu/dakizkizu, hark daki/dakizki, guk dakigu/dakizkigu, zuek dakizue/dakizkizue, haiek dakite/dakizkite
  • and the auxiliary verb Ukan/Edun (d- + -u/itu- + endings)
  • nik dut/ditut, zuk duzu/dituzu, hark du/ditu, guk dugu/ditugu, zuek duzue/dituzue, haiek dute/dituzte
  • Note: Nork pronouns end in -k (nik, zuk, hark, guk, zuek, haiek)

The NORK case:

  • The chart below shows the main parts of the NORK-NOR (ergative -absolutive) case in Basque.
  • The NORK (ergative) case is used with the subject of transitive verbs (verbs which have objects)
  • while the object of the verb is in the NOR (absolutive) case, which is the case used for the subject of intransitive verbs, and was covered earlier.
  • Example: Txakurra gaztea da. The dog is young.(txakurra is the intransitive verb subject)
  • Mikelek txakurra dauka. Michael has the dog.(txakurra is the transitive verb object)

Nork Case

  • Indefinite
  • -(e)k
  • mendik
  • Single definite
  • -ak
  • mendiak
  • Plural definite
  • -ek
  • mendiek
  • Proper names
  • -(e)k
  • Mikelek


  • As was covered in module 20, the Basque word for any is the suffix -rik.
  • When using -rik, you just add -rik to the no article form. Ex: diru = money, dirurik. = any money.
  • As with English, -rik is normally used with negative sentences. The subject doesn’t have any of the object. Also note -rik makes the object single.

Eduki 1

  • Nik daukat: I have it
  • Zuk daukazu: You have it
  • Hark dauka: He/she/it has it
  • Guk daukagu: We have it
  • Zuek daukazue: You (plural) have it
  • Haiek daukate: They have it
  • diru: money

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