26. NORTAZ 1

Instrumental case NORTAZ: By what means?

  • Below are are the ways to form the NORAZ case, but in this lesson we will just use the Indefinite
  • Indefinite
  • -(e)z
  • oinez(by foot)
  • Single definite
  • -az
  • oinaz(by the foot)
  • Plural definite
  • -(e)z,(e)taz
  • oinez (by the feet)
  • Proper names
  • -az
  • espainieraz (by/in Spanish)
  • Note : if a plural noun ends in a vowel, add -ez/etaz/ if a consonant, add -z/taz
  • The instrumental can be widely used to describe objects, people or ideas that do something, but in normal speech, not literary usage,
  • it is mostly used to describe means of transportation (Trenez joaten naiz. I go by train.),
  • to change nouns to adverbs(arreta care - arretaz carefully) and languages (euskaraz - in Basque).
  • The indefinite form of the instrumental is used in numerous expressions, such as:
  • Gauez ibiltzen naiz. I walk at night.
  • Oinez joaten naiz. I go by foot.
  • Liburua ingelesez dago. The book is in English.
  • Seinaleak euskaraz daude. The signs are in Basque
  • Note: Remember, the conjugated form of verbs, such as Etorri (nator, zatoz, dator, gatoz, zatozte, datoz)
  • is the equivalent of the present continuous form in English, that being something you are in the process of doing, now or around now.
  • “I am coming from school by bus.” (now) (Ni eskolatik autobusez nator.),
  • while the non-conjugated form is used for things done habitually “I come from school every day by bus.” (Ni egunero etortzen naiz eskolatik autobusez.).
  • Similarly, the past form of conjugated verbs represents the past continuous, “I was coming from school by bus.”(Eskolatik autobusez nentorren.).
  • vs non-conjugated I came home from school by bus every day.(Egunero etortzen nintzen eskolatik autobusez.)


  • autobusez: by bus
  • trenz: by train
  • ferry: ferry
  • ferryz: by ferry
  • hegazkin: airplane
  • hegazkinez: by airplane
  • kamioi: truck
  • kamioiz: by truck
  • motor: motorcycle
  • motorrez: by motorcycle
  • astero: every week

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