26. NORTAZ 1
Instrumental case NORTAZ: By what means?
- Below are are the ways to form the NORAZ case, but in this lesson we will just use the Indefinite
- oinez(by foot)
- Single definite
- oinaz(by the foot)
- Plural definite
- oinez (by the feet)
- Proper names
- espainieraz (by/in Spanish)
- Note : if a plural noun ends in a vowel, add -ez/etaz/ if a consonant, add -z/taz
- The instrumental can be widely used to describe objects, people or ideas that do something, but in normal speech, not literary usage,
- it is mostly used to describe means of transportation (Trenez joaten naiz. I go by train.),
- to change nouns to adverbs(arreta care - arretaz carefully) and languages (euskaraz - in Basque).
- The indefinite form of the instrumental is used in numerous expressions, such as:
- Gauez ibiltzen naiz. I walk at night.
- Oinez joaten naiz. I go by foot.
- Liburua ingelesez dago. The book is in English.
- Seinaleak euskaraz daude. The signs are in Basque
- Note: Remember, the conjugated form of verbs, such as Etorri (nator, zatoz, dator, gatoz, zatozte, datoz)
- is the equivalent of the present continuous form in English, that being something you are in the process of doing, now or around now.
- “I am coming from school by bus.” (now) (Ni eskolatik autobusez nator.),
- while the non-conjugated form is used for things done habitually “I come from school every day by bus.” (Ni egunero etortzen naiz eskolatik autobusez.).
- Similarly, the past form of conjugated verbs represents the past continuous, “I was coming from school by bus.”(Eskolatik autobusez nentorren.).
- vs non-conjugated I came home from school by bus every day.(Egunero etortzen nintzen eskolatik autobusez.)
- autobusez: by bus
- trenz: by train
- ferry: ferry
- ferryz: by ferry
- hegazkin: airplane
- hegazkinez: by airplane
- kamioi: truck
- kamioiz: by truck
- motor: motorcycle
- motorrez: by motorcycle
- astero: every week
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