Reflective Verbs 1

32 Reflective Verbs 1

Grammar: Reflective Verbs

  • A few intransitive verbs are used reflectively, for example, the verb “gustatu” (to please) is used reflectively to mean “to like”.

  • So to say “Do you like it?” you would say “(Zuri hura) gustatzen zaizu?” (Is it pleasing to you?).

  • Pronouns, such as “zuri” & “hura”, are not normally used in common speech, as the verb tells who the subject and indirect object are

  • and including pronouns makes it rather emphatic, (Is it pleasing to YOU. (not to someone else))

  • but they will be used in the course to teach and reinforce the pronouns.

  • The Sentence structure for dative sentences is normally Indirect object + Subject + (Direct Object) + main verb + dative from of the auxiliary verb,

  • with the direct object only being present for transitive verbs.

  • So the sentence structure for “(Zuri hura) gustatzen zaizu?” is the Indirect object: zuri (to you) + the Subject: hura(it)

    • the main verb: gustatzen + the dative of the auxiliary verb: zaizu.
  • However, the order can be modified based on what the speaker wants to emphasis.

  • For this verb, the item being liked can come before the verbs or after, but can’t come between,

  • so I like coffee.(Coffee is pleasing to me.) can be “(Niri)Kafea gustatzen zait.” or “(Niri) Gustatzen zait kafea.”

  • or for plural objects I like owls (Owls are pleasing to me.) (Niri)Hontzak gustatzen zaizkit or (Niri)gustatzen zaizkit hontzak.

  • For negative sentences, the order is, again, changed and “ez” needs to be next to the conjugated verb.

  • “(Niri) Ez zait gustatzen.” or “(Niri) Gustatzen ez zait.” (I don’t like it./It is not pleasing to me.)

  • “(Niri) Ez zaizkit gustatzen.” or “(Niri) Gustatzen ez zaizkit.” (I don’t like them./They are not pleasing to me.).

  • While “ez” and the verb must be together, other elements can be moved to show emphasis, so “I don’t like snakes./Snakes are not pleasing to me.” can be

  • “(Niri) Sugeak ez zaizkit gustatzen.” or “(Niri) Ez zaizkit sugeak gustatzen.” or “(Niri) Ez zaizkit gustatzen sugeak.”

  • Other reflective verbs that take the dative include: interesatu (interested in), kostatu (cost)), iruditu (seemed), berdin(same),gelditu (remained, left).

32.1 Grammar: NORI Verb Construction (Dative)

  • When intransitive verbs are used in the dative case, there are only normally only two (NOR) subjects used he/she/it, which have the prefix “za”
  • or they, which has the prefix “zaizk”.
  • A NORI suffix is then added to form the dative verb (to me -it, to you -izu, to him, her -io, to us -igu, to you (plural) -izue, to them -ie)
  • Single indirect single object(za-)/Plural indirect plural object (zaizk-)
  • niri zait/zaizkit
  • zuri zaizu/zaizkizu
  • hari zaio/zaizkio
  • guri zaigu/zaizkigu
  • zuei zaizue/zaizkizue
  • haiei zaie/zaizkie

Reflective Verbs 1

  • zuri: to you
  • zuei: to you plural
  • (niri) zait: it is to me
  • (zuri) zaizu: it is to you
  • (hari) zaio: it is to him/her/it
  • (guri) zaigu: it is to us
  • (zuei) zaizue: it is to you(plural)
  • (haiei) zaie: it is to them
  • gustatuko: will like (will be pleasing)
  • gustatzen: like (is pleasing)
  • gustatu: liked (was pleasing)

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