This, That and My 1

​This & That

Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives

  • As in English, the same words (this, that, those, etc.) are used as demonstrative pronouns (DP) (to point out something) and demonstrative adjectives (DA) (to say that something has some characteristic - red, big, etc.).

Word order - Demonstrative Pronouns

  • When used as a pronoun, the word order is Demonstrative Pronoun + Noun/Noun phrase (Subject(S)) + Verb.
  • Examples:
  • Hau (DP) kotxea(S) da(V). : This is the car. (lit: This car is.)
  • Hau (DP) kotxe(N) gorria(A) da(V). : This is the red car.(note: “kotxe gorria” is a noun phrase that is the object of the sentence and “Hau” is the subject.

Word order - Demonstrative Adjectives

  • When used as an adjective, the Demonstrative Adjectives (DA) is the last item in the noun phrase (Noun (N), Adjective(A), demonstrative adjective(DA) and is used with a complementary adjective(CA) and a verb(V).
  • Note that when a demonstrative adjective is used, adjectives and noun in the rest of the noun phrase use the plain form (gorri not gorria or gorriak).
  • Examples:
  • Kotxe(N) hau(DA) gorria(CA) da(V).: This car is red.
  • Kotxe(N) gorri(A) hau (S(DA)) handia(CA) da(V). : This red car is big. (Note in the subject noun phrase “Kotxe gorri hau” neither kotxe or gorri have a grammatical ending as hau fills that role.

Vocabulary This & To Whom 1

  • hau: this
  • hauek: these (plural of hau)
  • hori: that
  • horiek: those (plural of hori)
  • hura: that over there (also 3d person single pronoun “he/she/it”)
  • haiek: Those over there (plural of hura and also 3d person plural pronoun “they”)
  • eskola: school
  • liburu: book

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